the human rights watch spearheaded arguments that police brutality is still a real problem
Increased black political engagement, and the desire to unseat Addonizio, brought about the election of the first black mayor of any large northeast city, Kenneth Gibson in 1970. 1 , 34 , 38 Under Gibson, who was politically moderate, racial and gender diversity increased among the police force, but a civilian review board was never passed nor was a black police director initially appointed, the main demand of civil rights activists. At this point, many activists, who played an important role in Gibson’s election, became disillusioned by the limits of black politicians to reform policing practices. 40
Taken together, the politics, laws, and policies that govern the operations of law enforcement can be said to comprise the “political determinants of health”. 16 That is, the relationships of power that produce the everyday aggressions that marginalized communities experience lie among the upstream predictors of health and wellbeing in these populations. 16 , 63 , 66 Police accountability reform can be compared to other policy changes that have targeted nonhealth-specific actors for public health gains. For example, the New York Police Department’s May 2014 announcement to end police confiscation of condoms for use as evidence in prostitution cases was a change driven by human rights advocates to end a practice that disproportionately targeted transgender women and groups frequently suspected of sex work. 17 Additionally, pressure from the DOJ, the ACLU and Human Rights Watch led to the recent desegregation of HIV positive prisoners in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi, ending a discriminatory practice that lacked scientific basis. 67 Thus, strategies employed to disrupt the status quo political determinants of health—including grassroots activism and petitioning for DOJ intervention—may have direct and indirect public health impacts.
To meet a “due diligence standard regarding the regulation of the ownership and use of small arms”, according to Frey’s report,
While the traditional IHL prism is ill-fitting for armed violence in its most common manifestation (urban gun violence in countries nominally at peace), what are the future prospects of further applying IHRL to small arms use by state agents, or to reduce firearm violence between civilians? Many avenues are available to reignite the connection between human rights and gun violence. Some of these have reportedly been recently considered within leading human rights NGOs, but not quite broken through into multi-year strategies and advocacy priorities.
Today, although troublesome relationships between police and minorities remain common, police are increasingly aware of such problems and have taken broad steps to solve them. The community-policing reforms of the late 20th century (see above Community policing), for example, were motivated in part by the desire to reduce conflict with minorities. However, improvements can happen only in societies in which there is police accountability. Without accountability, complaints about police actions may be met with severe reprisals, including the killing of complainants by police officers.
The relationships between police and ethnic and racial minorities present some of the more enduring and complex problems in policing throughout the world. Such relationships can be harmonious, but they often are problematic. For example, minorities may be generally deprived of police protection and other services to which they are entitled. More specifically, police may refrain from addressing criminal behaviour (e.g., domestic violence) within a particular minority group because they believe that members of that group typically engage in such behaviour. A more acute problem is direct conflict between police and minorities. On the part of police, conflict may take the form of harassment, brutality, or excessive enforcement.
 Jim Elmslie, “The Great Divide: West Papuan Demographics Revisited; Settlers Dominate Coastal Regions but the Highlands Still Overwhelmingly Papuan”, Asia Pacific Journal, 15, Issue 2, (15 January 2017), https://apjjf.org/2017/02/Elmslie.html.
In endeavours to thicken cross-border development and trade, Papua New Guinea has the broad support of Melanesian countries. Papua New Guinea’s government seeks to be the leader of the Pacific Islands region and as such it is incumbent on Papua New Guinea to advance the concerns of its fellow island countries. As the ULMWP and various lobby groups maintain their work in the region, island countries — not just Melanesian countries but other Pacific nations such as Tonga, Tuvalu and Nauru — will keep pushing for access to West Papua for the UN Human Rights Commissioner (OHCHR), consistent with the PIF’s stance on the issue of human rights.