how did the development of the caste system affect society in india
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For centuries, caste has dictated almost every aspect of Hindu religious and social life, with each group occupying a specific place in this complex hierarchy.
Convergence between upper and lower castes in education and jobs
Structural change has created new economic opportunities over the past 25 years, but it has also brought new challenges. In particular, market imperfections, which give rise to networks, can be exacerbated in a dynamic economy. Harish Damodaran’s fascinating book (goo.gl/mBCBwa) on Indian entrepreneurs documents the movement of castes from agriculture and administrative occupations into business in recent decades. My own research on the diamond industry shows how a historically disadvantaged caste took advantage of a shock to the world supply of rough diamonds in the late 1970s to move from agriculture and then industrial labour into the export business, over the course of a single generation. The encouraging theoretical and empirical finding that emerges from this research is that once networks form, they will strengthen relatively rapidly in historically disadvantaged castes (with weaker outside options). The occupational convergence between upper castes and lower castes that has been previously documented may well have been driven by many such transitions, supported by underlying caste networks, especially among the lower castes.
Caste identities and networks persist because of their advantages.
Policy innovation adapted to the realities of caste is needed.
The caste system has also spilled over into other religions in India, with Christians, Muslims, Sikhs and Jains all employing similar forms of social stratification.
In recent times, Dalits have been campaigning for their rights
The correct answers are 2) Ensured equality among men and women of the same class, 3) Ensured job specialization among people, and 6) Provided a stable social structure.
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