Harvard University Graduate School of Design

resume summary vs resume objective

How to write a professional summary?

As we said before, a good professional summary should compel an employer to read the next section of your resume — that’s all. If it manages to do that, then it has accomplished its purpose.

  • Write your professional summary last. It’s surprisingly easy once you’ve already written other sections of your resume. All you have to do is cherry-pick the most impressive facts and stats.
  • Tailor it to a specific job opening. Star with the job listing that made you apply for the job. Carefully reread it and find the most important keywords. These are the nouns or phrases that best describe the job position, related skills, as well as the ideal candidate. Before you begin to write, think about how they intersect with your own skills and experiences. In this way, you also have a higher chance to get through the ATS systems which companies use.
  • The first bullet point should describe your professional title. Don’t forget to add the number of years of experience. You want to communicate your professional identity immediately. You can also write it in bold. It can look something like this: “Certified Project Management Professional with over 4 years of experience”.
  • Pick the 3-4 most impressive parts of your resume and reword them into snappy bullet points. Tease your potential employer into reading further. Did you win an award for the best customer service? Or hit 95 % of sales targets for five consecutive years? These are the things that deserve a mention at the top of your resume!
  • Translate each achievement into numbers. Each bullet point should contain at least one piece of quantifiable data. Use percentages, numbers or impressive sales figures. It gives the hiring manager a better idea of how you performed in your previous jobs. Numbers attract attention. Take advantage of that.
  • Sum up what you have to offer. Instead of saying what you want, keep in mind what they want. Make clear what values you can bring to the company. Look for common threads in your work history and for skills which apply most to the job.

resume summary example

Tip 1: How to Write an Education Section that Stands Out

The education section demonstrates that you have the academic qualifications for the position. The key questions you should ask yourself while writing this section is, “Have I clearly communicated the strongest and most relevant aspects of my educational experience?” The next question is, “Is this section organized in a way that is easily readable by the employer?”

The education section is important for all applicants but may be weighted differently depending on how long it has been since you graduated from a degree program. For instance, an employer may have a different level of interest in the educational history of a college senior, compared to someone who has been professionally working for several years after college. Understanding this fact may influence where you choose to place this section on your resume.

In general, you should include all of the higher education that you may have had, including undergraduate, graduate, or professional schooling. You may also consider including online courses, certificates, and completed programs through companies like Coursera. Most people list their experiences in an order called reverse chronological, meaning that they list the most recent experience first, and work backwards down the page.

For each listed school, provide the full name of the school or online program, the years of your attendance, your major or majors, if applicable, as well as a minor if applicable. Include the type of degree received (e.g. a Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science) and the year of graduation. If you are graduating soon, include the month and year of graduation so employers know when you will be available to work. If you have studied abroad, include the institution, program of study, and any relevant coursework.

You may want to include which semesters you qualified for special academic recognition, if any. Other special awards, scholarships, or competitive grants can also be listed in this section. If you have non-academic awards, such as for sports or community service, you may choose to create a separate section of your resume for honors and awards.

Résumé Formating Tips

format

How to write your résumé

✔ Be honest
✔ Use easy to read fonts
✔ Use simple words and action verbs
✔ Include unpaid internships to showcase your skills
✔ Limit your résumé to two pages max (one page if you’re early in your career
✔ Write the résumé to suit the position you are applying for
✔ Proofread you résumé
✔ finish crafting and then start editing it

How not to write your résumé

✔ Don’t include reasons for leaving your previous job
✔ Don’t include references – instead say that references will be provided if requested
✔ Avoid using too many bullet points
✔ Don’t save your résumé as a PDF unless asked to
✔ Don’t use an inappropriate email address
✔ Avoid including unnecessary information like your age, weight, and so on.
✔ Avoid including your picture in your résumé – just let the recruiter focus on your skills.

Résumé Builder Sites

Resource:

https://www.kickresume.com/en/help-center/how-write-profile-resume/
https://www.gsd.harvard.edu/career/career-services-students/resume-tips/
https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/how-to-write-a-resume-with-example/

8 Types of Culture in the Workplace

company-core-values

8 Types of Culture in the Workplace

Employees are greatly impacted by the internal culture of an organization. Understanding how companies function and live out their values can help you decide where you want to work and what type of culture best suits your personality, skill level and work methods. Many different cultures exist within the workplace and organizations often embody more than one type as they function within a set of values and expectations. In this article, we define organizational culture, describe the types of culture common in companies and offer tips to improve the workplace environment.

Organizational culture is a way to describe the overall environment within a workplace. Organizational culture happens naturally or is strategically planned by upper-level management through various initiatives and attitudes. The culture of an organization can make a big impact on employees and whether they feel comfortable and supported in the workplace.

Workplace culture reflects the values of company leadership and can also shape the interactions and motivations of employees. Organizational culture can impact the success of a business, which is why many companies dedicate time and thought to understanding the way their workplace environment functions and ways to improve their culture.

What factors affect an organizational culture?

Company policy: The organizational practices set up by senior management can impact the overall culture of an organization because they establish the governing principles that employees follow to perform their jobs.

Company mission: Company culture is often formed by a common mission. If a company sets clear goals that staff members believe in, they are more likely to form a specific environment in the workplace based on those objectives.

Company history: An organization’s background can impact the type of culture that’s formed in the workplace. Startup companies usually create a different environment than an established corporate firm.

Leadership: The leadership style of an organization’s management can greatly impact the culture. Leadership sets the tone for an organization’s values and interactions within the workplace.

Motivational tools: How an organization chooses to acknowledge and reward staff can also contribute to the culture. Praise, monetary bonuses or other incentives can affect the cultural environment by increasing enthusiasm and productivity. Motivation can be used to drive success but can also contribute to competition.

Location: The way an organization operates whether in a physical building or as a remote business plays a role in determining the company culture. Metropolitan and rural organizations as well as regions can also differ in their environments both outside and within the workplace, affecting their values and attributes.

Communication: How ideas are communicated within an organization has an impact on the way staff members function within the environment. Transparency and honesty are often big concerns for employees. Organizations who communicate effectively are more likely to have a positive work culture.

What is Company Culture?

Company culture can more simply be described as the shared ethos of an organization. It’s the way people feel about the work they do, the values they believe in, where they see the company going and what they’re doing to get it there. Collectively, these traits represent the personality — or culture — of an organization.

The environment in which they spend that time will largely dictate the quality of an employee’s professional life. If they work for a company with a strong culture that aligns with their own beliefs and attitudes, they’ll be more likely to work hard and remain with the company for the long haul. If, on the other hand, the company’s culture does not reflect their own personal feelings, they’re much more likely to leave — or worse, remain with the company but underperform.

Your core values – Core values are certainly part of your culture, but until you put them into action they’re just words on paper. In fact, core values can negatively impact culture if they aren’t adhered to. Employees will see this as the company paying lip service and failing to live up to its own standards.

Your perks and benefits – Ping pong tables and beer on tap can be great, assuming they represent what your employees really care about, but perks and benefits are not a substitute for strong company culture.

The yardstick by which all candidates should be measured – Hiring for cultural fit has become a hot topic over the past few years, but we’re already seeing companies shift away from this line of thought. Hiring people that align with your culture makes sense on the surface, but too many companies use this “metric” as a crutch. Many companies have pivoted to a “cultural add” model, wherein they look for candidates that align with the most important elements of their culture, but will also bring their own unique traits to the table.

A successful company culture is one that is bought into by everyone from the newest intern to the CEO. It’s living and breathing your core values. The job of the company is to make sure that every employee understands the expectations and acts accordingly. A truly great company culture is one that inherently promotes curiosity, respect, teamwork and employee health.

A way to really boost your company’s culture is to put a concerted emphasis on diversity and inclusion. In simplified terms, diversity and inclusion in the workplace is making a group of individuals, with completely different backgrounds and experiences, feel safe and accepted in expressing their uniqueness while at work. Allowing employees to express their differences, learn from each other and feel safe while doing it creates a strong cultural bond that breeds employee happiness and productivity.

company culture benefits

Building a strong company culture should be at the forefront of every company agenda.

Importance of Company Culture

66% of job seekers consider a company’s culture and values the most important factor when considering career opportunities (source). Looking to recruit top talent? Your company culture had better be a priority.

Companies that actively manage their culture boast 40% higher employee retention (source). Culture is about more than attracting talent. It also plays a huge role in retaining your top performers.

Only 28% of executives say they understand their organization’s culture (source). Candidates care about culture. Employees care about culture. Isn’t it time your executives get serious about the topic?

Organizations with strong cultures boast 72% higher employee engagement rates than those with weak cultures (source). Company culture influences employee engagement, which has a direct impact on performance.

Highly engaged teams outperform their peers by 10% in customer ratings, 21% in productivity and 22% in profitability (source). Simply put, engaged workers are productive workers, and productive workers are profitable workers.

Unfortunately, only 13% of employees identify as being engaged with their work (source). It turns out that very few companies are benefiting from all of those perks associated with a highly engaged workforce.

company culture strategies

There are a number of strategies companies can take to build a better company culture.

Resource:

https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/types-of-culture
https://builtin.com/company-culture

Top Factors to Consider When Choosing a College

How to Pick a College

Academic Life

1. Admission Rate
Depending on how you performed in high school and on the SAT, you may want to apply to schools with higher or lower admission rates. If you aced everything in your academic history, you have a better chance for acceptance at the schools with lower admission rates. On the other hand, if your academic history is less than perfect, make sure you apply to some schools that have a higher admission rate, just in case.

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Academic Life Admission Rate

2. Graduation Rate
Graduating from college is definitely more important than getting accepted. Without graduation, what’s the point of being accepted in the first place? When considering a college, review the percentage of students who complete the full program.

3. Freshmen Retention Rate
Another metric to consider is the freshmen retention rate, which explains what percentage of freshmen return for their sophomore year. A high retention rate indicates overall student satisfaction with their first year experience at that school. It also indicates that few students failed their freshmen year, a crucial time for students trying to adjust to college life.

4. Student to Faculty Ratio
There were 700 students in my very first class at the University of Florida. Needless to say, I never actually got to meet the professor, or get any personal attention or help. Luckily, most of my other classes had fewer students. If I had known that the average class size at the University of Florida was much less than 700, I probably wouldn’t have been so unnerved during my first day at school. If you want or need one-on-one assistance from your professors, examine the student to faculty ratio very closely.

5. School Size
Even if the student to faculty ratio is reasonable, analyze the overall size of the school. This can play a huge role in your comfort level, and in how well you fit in. A large school may be overwhelming for some students, but a small school may be underwhelming for others. Do you want to recognize everyone on campus, or do you want to have more privacy?

6. Graduate/Professional School Options
If you have high aspirations of going on to a graduate or professional school, such as law school or medical school, investigate what percentage of four-year college graduates pursue another degree. This metric gives you some insights about whether the school adequately prepares students for continuing their education, and insights into the probability of follow-through for your academic goals.

7. Jobs Right Out of School
If you worry about finding a job when you finish school, consider the percentage of students who receive a job right after graduation. Some schools have excellent job placement programs, assisting their students in making the transition from student to employee, and helping them find jobs after graduation.

8. Curriculum
Different schools offer different programs with their curriculum. For example, as an Engineering student, I had a set of classes that I was required to take, with little deviation apart from electives. Some other schools, such as Brown University, have a more open curriculum, allowing students to have much greater flexibility with the courses they take.

9. Course Availability
I often see advertisements for schools that provide night and weekend courses. Depending on your availability, you may need to choose a school that has those options. These types of schools make it possible for those who must work full-time jobs to also pursue an education. Taking classes at night, on the weekends, or online, is also an excellent way to earn a graduate degree (e.g. MBA business degree program)

10. Quality of Professors
Does the college have highly qualified professors, or do the professors seem to be amateurs? To make sure you are getting the best possible education, you need to study with highly educated professors that not only have experience teaching, but also real-world skills.

For example, a large number of professors at Miami University in Ohio attended Ivy League schools. Many professors at the university also have real-world training, and at least one urban planning professor works for the city government. Students in his class created a project that mimicked a project the professor had worked on for the city.

Three USF students sitting outside on a dock.

As an example, USF may be an ideal choice if you’re a sun worshipping urbanite. Our average temperature is 70-90 degrees, and the greater Tampa Bay metro area offers countless cultural, recreational, internship, service-learning, and employment opportunities, along with some of the top beaches in the country. It’s perfect for those who love the sunshine and city life, but not so ideal for ski enthusiasts or those who prefer the rolling countryside.

  • Residence Halls: What types of halls are available – singles, doubles, suite-style, apartment style? How much do they cost? Who is eligible? Are there communities for like-minded students (same major, special interests, etc.)?
  • Dining Halls & Restaurants: What kind of meal plans are available? Where can you eat with the meal plan? Are there restaurants on campus or only dining halls? Do they accommodate special diets such as vegan or gluten-free?
  • On-Site Services: Are you able to get medical care right on campus? Does the college offer an on-campus pharmacy, counseling center, bank, grocery store or other needed services?
  • Recreation Opportunities: Does the college have a rec center? What type of equipment do they have? Are fitness classes offered? Is there a pool, basketball court, track or other amenities that interest you? Are there other recreation opportunities on campus?

A group of USF students spending time outside on campus.

Affordability

For many students, cost is a major factor in the college search. When it comes time to pick a college, you want to make sure the school fits your budget, even after accounting for fees and living expenses.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average public university costs over $20,000 per year, while private universities cost nearly $45,000 per year. On top of tuition, fees, and room and board, students should also consider the area’s cost of living and expenses like transportation, extracurriculars, and entertainment.

Prospective students should also research financial aid, as scholarships, grants, and fellowships can lower the cost of a college degree. Many students also rely on loans to help pay for college. Distance learning students can qualify for online financial aid.

Image of two icons showing a laptop and a school chair with desk.

Location

Location may figure prominently in your college search. Some students prefer an urban college in the center of a major city, while others want a rural, small-town college experience. Some students prefer sticking close to home, while others want to explore a new place.

Location also affects your ability to receive state financial aid, including grants that support state residents. Prospective applicants should check the most affordable colleges in their state to see how much they can save at an in-state school.

Prospective applicants should also determine whether they are willing to move out of state to attend college or if they would prefer a school close to home. Working professionals, adult learners, and students with families may want to consider online programs, which allow them to attend college without relocating.

Image of three icons showing one building, two buildings, and three buildings.

Disclosing disability at admissions

Why disclose your disability? One reason is that your disability has influenced your approach to learning, your determination, and many other things in your life. What you have learned about yourself and how you have dealt with your disability may say volumes about the kind of person and student you are.

If you are below a minimum standard (or somewhere below average) requesting colleges to consider additional or alternative information is reasonable. The goal of this kind of request is to have the college consider a substitute measure or to take additional information into consideration.

Some colleges have a formal process for these kinds of requests while others do not. You should check with the disability services office about formal procedures. You may submit this kind of request even if there is not a formal process in place.

Typical admissions standards

  1. Four units of English
    • Ability to produce a final written product (directly, utilizing adaptive technology, or utilizing alternative media)
    • Ability to comprehend material in print or alternative media (tape, etc.)
    • Basic familiarity with forms and styles of literature.
    • Three Units of Mathematics (Geometry, Algebra I, Algebra II)
      • Computational mathematics skills covering basic arithmetic through single variable algebra.
      • Application of linear reasoning to a constrained set of facts.
      • Symbolic manipulation.
      • Ability to learn and apply an abstract system of complex rules.
      • Three Units of Science (including a laboratory science
        • Basic understanding of key elements in scientific method.
        • Ability to make predictions based on a theory.
        • Ability to make and test predictions based on collected observations.
        • Ability to observe and describe the physical world.
        • Two Units of Foreign Language
          • Familiarity and exposure to alternative cultural perspectives.
          • Ability to learn and apply an abstract system of complex rules.
          • Symbolic Manipulation.
          • Three Units of Social Studies
            • Basic understanding of historical and social forces that have influenced current culture.
            • Basic understanding of the relationship between society and the individual.
            • One Unit of Fine or Practical Arts
              • Appreciation for and an understanding of the process of creating aesthetic or functional objects. b) Understanding of the relationship between design, function, and societal values.
              • Two Units of Health & Physical Education
                • Understanding of health and wellness issues as they relate to life style choices.
                • Appreciation for the physical nature of oneself and the environment.
                • Grade Point Average
                  • Level of accumulated knowledge and skills acquired through high school.
                  • Predictor of the level of success in college.
                  • Indicator of motivation and consistency of performance across time and subject area.
                  • Rank In High School Senior Class
                    • Normative measure of academic potential.
                    • Indicator of relative academic competitiveness (motivation and ability) over time.
                    • SAT- I /ACT
                      • Non-native predictor of ability to succeed in college.
                      • Measure of academic potential or aptitude.
                      • Measure of academic achievement.

                      To evaluate requests for accommodation or auxiliary aids a college will need documentation of the disability. Various colleges define what specific documentation is required differently. You should check on the requirements of the colleges you are interested in and discuss any updating of your documentation that may be necessary when you are developing your Transition Plan. The guidelines below are likely to be acceptable by most institutions.

                      Resources:

                      https://www.moneycrashers.com/factors-choose-college/
                      https://admissions.usf.edu/blog/top-factors-to-consider-when-choosing-a-college
                      https://thebestschools.org/resources/how-to-pick-a-college/
                      https://www.ldonline.org/ld-topics/college-college-prep/choosing-college

                      Email writing tips

                      The way you start the email sets the tone of the message and builds the recipient’s first impression of you. Unfortunately, many don’t pay enough attention to it. What’s the proper way to start my email then? Well, it depends. The appropriate greeting for your email can be formal or friendly, depending on who you communicate with and your purpose.

                      Blog image

                      10 Powerful Tips for Writing an Effective Email

                      There’s a difference between writing an email and writing a truly effective email. Brushing up on your email writing skills can be the difference between getting a prompt, favorable response or a swift deletion. Boost your email skills with these 10 powerful tips and you’ll be on your way to crafting effective messages that get results.

                      When writing an email, it’s important to use an informed, detailed subject line. When a reader sees the subject line, the wording should immediately reveal what the message is about. It should also be relevant enough to the content of the message that it includes a term the recipient would be likely to search for if it becomes necessary to find the email again. This can determine whether readers open your message and if they’ll be able to find it later, both of which are important for effective email messages.

                      Avoid attachments .

                      Rather than forcing you reader to download an attachment and open it in a separate program, you will probably get faster results if you just copy-paste the most important part of the document into the body of your message.

                      If you telephoned someone outside your closest circle, someone who probably wouldn’t recognize your voice, you would probably say something like “Hello, Ms. Wordsworth, this is Sally Griffin.” A formal “Dear Ms. Wordsworth” salutation is not necessary for routine workplace communication.

                      To: Professor Blinderson
                      From: FuZzYkItTy2000[email protected]
                      Subject: [Blank]Yo goin 2 miss class whats the homework
                      Professor Blinderson will probably reply, “Please let me know your name and which class you’re in, so that I can respond meaningfully. I don’t recognize the address [email protected]
                      To: Professor Blinderson
                      From: [email protected]
                      Subject: EL227 Absence, Oct 10Hello, Prof. Blinderson. This is Morris Ponsybil, from EL227 section 2.This morning, I just found out that the curling team has advanced to the playoffs, so I’m going to be out of town on the 10th.According to the syllabus, it looks like I will miss a paper workshop and the discussion of Chapter 10. May I email you my Chapter 10 discussion questions before I leave town? And could I come to your office hour at 2pm on the 12th, in order to discuss the paper? I’ve asked Cheryl Jones to take notes for me.Thank you very much. I’ll see you in class tomorrow.
                      If you are asking the other person to do you a favor, providing the right information will give him or her a good reason to decide in your favor. In this case, Morris Ponsybil shows his professor he cares enough about the class to propose a solution to the problem his absence will cause.

                      Even if you already have a connection with the person you are contacting, a little context is helpful. Every fall, I get emails from “[email protected]” or “[email protected]” who ask a question about “class” and don’t sign their real names.

                      If you are following up on a face-to-face contact, you might appear too timid if you assume your recipient doesn’t remember you; but you can drop casual hints to jog their memory: “I enjoyed talking with you about usability testing in the elevator the other day.”

                      While formal phrases such as “Dear Professor Sneedlewood” and “Sincerely Yours,” are unnecessary in email, when contacting someone outside your own organization, you should write a signature line that includes your full name and at least a link to a blog or online profile page (something that does not require your recipient to log in first).

                      Respond Prompt ly.

                      If you want to appear professional and courteous, make yourself available to your online correspondents. Even if your reply is, “Sorry, I’m too busy to help you now,” at least your correspondent won’t be waiting in vain for your reply.

                      While most people know that email is not private, it is good form to ask the sender before forwarding a personal message. If someone emails you a request, it is perfectly acceptable to forward the request to a person who can help — but forwarding a message in order to ridicule the sender is tacky.

                      Use BCC instead of CC when sending sensitive information to large groups. (For example, a professor sending a bulk message to students who are in danger of failing, or an employer telling unsuccessful applicants that a position is no longer open.) The name of everyone in the CC list goes out with the message, but the names of people on the BCC list (“blind carbon copy”) are hidden. Put your own name in the “To” box if your mail editor doesn’t like the blank space.

                      Be tolerant of other people’s etiquette blunders. If you think you’ve been insulted, quote the line back to your sender and add a neutral comment such as, “I’m not sure how to interpret this… could you elaborate?”

                      But before reading her second message, I replied at length to the first. Once I learned that there was no need for any reply, I worried that my response would seem pompous, so I followed up with a quick apology:

                      What I meant to say was “[I] should have looked more carefully at my[list of incoming] email [before replying],” but I could tell from my colleague’s terse reply that she had interpreted it as if I was criticizing her.

                      If I hadn’t responded so quickly to the first message, I would have saved myself the time I spent writing a long answer to an obsolete question. If I hadn’t responded so quickly to the second message, I might not have alienated the person I had been so eager to help. –DGJ

                      Decide on the best way to sign off the email

                      Considering that your email greeting gives the ever-important first impression of yourself to the recipient, your sign-off dictates what kind of taste your message leaves in their mouth. Deciding on the best way to end your email can be time-consuming as there’s no one-size-fits-all solution. However, overlooking the importance of the sign-off is like stumbling on the finish line.

                      The most common examples of email sign-offs are:

                      The best way to sign off an email always depends on the recipient, your relationship with them, and your email’s purpose. Choosing the right one for each context requires a bit of further reading. For that purpose, we have written a comprehensive guide on best email sign-offs from the most formal ones to those not suitable for the office.

                      Check your spelling

                      Incorrect spelling indicates carelessness and can destroy all the thought and effort you put into making your email better. Spelling checkers like Grammarly are great, but they won’t catch everything and, at times, fail to read into the context. That’s why you must train yourself to pick up the errors yourself.

                      Flowrite is an AI writing tool that turns short instructions into ready-to-send emails and messages in seconds. It takes care of the email structure, capitalization, grammar, spelling, punctuation – you name it. The emails our tool generates are native-level English, so you don’t have to worry about that either. Essentially you can focus on your thoughts and ideas, and Flowrite will give them wings. We dare to say that it’s the fastest way to start writing better emails, and many of our users have said that they have learned a lot by using it.

                      To get started, write a couple short sentences your email could consist of. Don’t worry too much about the phrasing or grammar, but aim to jot down thoughts as they naturally come out of your head. After this, you are ready for the next step.

                      How to use Flowrite

                      1. Write short bullet points as instructions

                      2. Choose the type of email you want to write

                      Now is time to consider who’s the recipient and what you are trying to achieve with the email? Perhaps you are cold contacting a potential hire, following up on a sales lead, or scheduling a meeting. We got it all covered.

                      3. Witness AI to generate your email

                      Now it’s time for some magic. After selecting the suitable template, you take it easy for a couple of seconds it takes for Flowrite to generate a fully-fledged email based on your instructions. In case you are dissatisfied with the outcome, it will create a new version with a click of a button. If you trust your email writing skills better, you can also make manual changes before sending the email.

                      This is possible thanks to our use of the latest advancement in artificial intelligence. If you are still not convinced that it can help you compose better emails, let’s forget the instructions altogether and let Flowrite write the whole email for you.

                      You are starting to catch up on how to write better emails already, right? We hope that these email writing tips (and perhaps our tool) could get you started on your journey to send better emails with confidence and build trust in your email writing skills.

                      Want to learn how to end an email? Discover professional email sign-offs and learn the email closings to keep away from. By the time you’ve done reading you’ve learned all ways to end an email you need to know.

                      Sources:

                      https://grammar.yourdictionary.com/grammar-rules-and-tips/five-tips-to-writing-an-effective-email.html
                      https://jerz.setonhill.edu/writing/e-text/email/
                      https://www.flowrite.com/blog/how-to-write-better-emails
                      Email writing tips

                      An effective email closing includes a closing phrase and identifies the sender. Just as there are formal and informal email salutations, there are also formal and informal email closings. The type of closing you choose depends on the target audience for your email.

                      How to Write a Proper Email

                      Use the Right Email Subject Line

                      This a bad subject line. It’s vague. The words "important email" don’t tell the reader anything about the email. Also, it’s misleading. If the reader opened the email, they’d see that they won’t get $100 unless they win a contest. Finally, the three exclamation points at the end of the subject line make this subject line look spammy.

                      Rather than the vague phrase, "important email," the second subject line tells the reader that this email lists new features for XYZ—a product they own. And the phrase in parenthesis makes it clear that the $100 is a prize.

                      Common email writing mistakes (and what to do instead)

                      1 Omitting necessary Oxford commas

                      The Oxford comma can be somewhat polarizing when thinking about how to write a proper email, depending on which style guide is utilized for professional communications in your industry —it’s usually either shunned or hailed as a tool for clarification. Either way, a lot of people have strong opinions about it. But leaving them out can lead to confusion, depending on the sentence.

                      Just like a healthy marriage, AP style calls for clear communication. We also believe in the value of compromise. So as a reminder, the Stylebook doesn’t prohibit all Oxford commas. If omitting a comma could lead to confusion or misinterpretation, then use the comma. https://t.co/vGsuRrwpQW

                      — AP Stylebook (@APStylebook) August 15, 2018

                      What to do instead: While the Oxford comma may not be suitable in certain contexts, it’s usually a good idea to use them in emails. That’s because it can help you save time and avoid miscommunication, confusion, and even legal trouble.

                      2 Hedging

                      Grammarly users know that when it comes to hedging, it’s better to omit it than leave it in, especially in emails. And if you’re worried about coming off as impolite, don’t be: Contrary to popular belief, hedging language makes you sound less confident, which can ultimately undermine your writing.

                      3 Extremely long and/or unclear copy

                      Would you read an email that was 1,000 words long? Probably not—most people skim emails that are on the long side. And if you add hard-to-follow sentences or mixed messages, to your draft, you’re even less likely to get a satisfactory response. (Or any response.)

                      “I get a ton of [emails] that are just these huge blocks of text. And I understand why they do that—so you have enough detail. But it’s really hard to read and I’m not going to read the whole thing,” says Kat Boogaard, a Wisconsin-based freelance writer.

                      What to do instead: Keep it concise and focus on the matter at hand. Then end with a call to action, a requested response date, and make it clear that you’re open to questions and follow-ups (if that’s the case).

                      4 Being too casual (or formal)

                      Depending on your circumstances, wavering too much to the casual or formal side of writing can be a misstep. Being overly casual is often seen as a rookie mistake, but stiff, formal language can also be detrimental to your message.

                      What to do instead: In striking the perfect balance between formal and casual, the key is thinking about the relationship between yourself and the recipient and take social cues as your communication progresses.

                      “You kind of want to see what someone else is doing and participate, play along, sort of acknowledge the way communication develops and the way expectations in a relationship develop,” says Dan Post Senning, an etiquette expert at the Emily Post Institute.

                      “Be careful in new relationships. The intelligent use of emoticons in emails can help you be more understood. At the same time, a lot of people will read it as unprofessional, so until you’ve established that relationship, you want to be careful with how you use it. Take care and think about it,” says Post Senning.

                      5 Cliches

                      Not all email cliches are cardinal sins. Certain aspects of your emails are bound to be a little formulaic. After all, most emails have the same basic structure, and there are phrases that you may use to ensure clarity or cover your bases. But if you’re going to repeat phrases, make sure they have a clear purpose.

                      What to do instead: Try reading the draft for cliches, tone, and voice to more effectively communicate your message while keeping the reader engaged. Ask yourself: If your boss (or mom) read this email, would you be happy with it? If the answer is yes, then you’re on the right track.

                      6 Repetition

                      What to do instead: Try reading your draft out loud, using the text-to-speech function on your phone, or running it by a colleague before sending it off. Grammarly can also help you catch these repeated or overused words.

                      7 Robotic language

                      Email may be a descendant of snail mail, but that doesn’t mean your messages should sound like an old-timey version of yourself. In fact, emails should sound like the person who is writing it. So using phrases that sound like something out of a Victorian novel isn’t the best move if you want to connect with the reader.

                      “Let’s face it: Nobody wants to read a college textbook. You want to read a blog or an article or a real conversation. They’re a person, they’re not a robot. So use language that sounds like something you would say if you’re just sitting in a coffee shop,” says copy chief Schafer.

                      Next-level email writing moves

                      Once you’ve got the proper email format and you know what mistakes to avoid, it’s time to focus on making your drafts stand out from the myriad emails most people get every day. Here are four strategies to take yours to the next level:

                      Think positive

                      “In the absence of other information, our interpretation often defaults to the negative,” explains communication-etiquette expert Post Senning. “When you’re talking about negative communication, you’re [missing] the information that is tone of voice, the twinkle in your eye, the good humor that you intend something with or even the genuine care or concern with which you’re offering critique. So be really careful. When something reads as negative to you, it probably comes across as even more negative to someone else.”

                      Strike the right tone

                      You wouldn’t want to get an email that reads, “Dear [client],” or which references your work in public relations when you’re actually in sales, because it would immediately show that the sender is either mass emailing you, or they didn’t do the proper research and find the right contact. Similarly, you’ll want to make sure that every email you send has a tone that’s crafted specifically for the recipient, and that you’re sending it to the right person.

                      So even though it may be tempting to use templates, it’s important to personalize it and keep in mind the communication style of the recipient before hitting send. To accomplish this, a quick Google search or a peek at the recipient’s LinkedIn or Twitter feed can do wonders.

                      Before sending, try putting yourself in the recipient’s shoes for a gut-check on tone and content. And if you have a hard time reading your own tone in email, Grammarly’s tone detector can help you determine how you sound to your recipient.

                      Follow up—in good time

                      If you’re sending an email, you’re likely looking for a timely response. But with the large amounts of emails most people sort through each day, things can end up getting lost. As a general rule, a follow-up message should never come less than twenty-four hours after sending the initial email.

                      In other words: Don’t be the person who sends a follow-up request two hours after sending. In extreme cases, that kind of behavior can even get you blocked. “When you’re taking more time and actually caring about the person on the other side of the email, you’re immediately going to see a much higher response rate. I had to learn that the hard way,” says copy chief Schafer.

                      Make it easy on the eyes

                      Most of the messages you send will likely be on the shorter side, which is great for rapid responses and getting things done. But for longer emails, scannability is the name of the game. That’s when things like bolded font, bullet points, underlined sentences, and a TL;DR (too long, didn’t read) section come in handy.

                      “I think people feel this pressure that you need to be this perfect communicator with this huge vocabulary and these perfectly structured sentences. And I don’t know that that’s always the case because you’re just two people, communicating,” says freelance writer Boogaard.

                      Hack #6: Why follow-up is more important

                      Nothing is more frustrating than sending a well-crafted and written email – only to receive no reply! Don’t hesitate to email them back. Follow-ups are crucial to get the recipient’s attention and call them out what needs to be taken next. A great follow-up email gets the other user on track and back on the keyboard to write a response. Here are some great templates that you may use to get started.

                      Make it easy for other people to review your emails by keeping everything organized. Don’t just write them in paragraph form. Identify opportunities to make everything concise and scannable. Use bulletpoints, subheadings and white space to give bigness to certain words and phrases. Draw attention to important deadlines and action points by using highlights, font colors, bold or underlines.

                      Sources:

                      https://business.tutsplus.com/tutorials/write-effective-emails–cms-29621
                      https://www.grammarly.com/blog/email-writing-tips/
                      https://fleep.io/blog/email-writing-tips/
                      Email writing tips

                      This is the main part of the email where you mention the core content or purpose of the email. Ensure that you write the core email content in clear short sentences. Avoid unwanted jargon, or too technical/industry-specific terms in the very first email, when you are not sure about the recipient’s knowledge in those areas. If you are reaching out, based on research or if someone has recommended this contact, make sure you mention that in the email. This will help the reader understand the context of the email better. If you have a lot to say, it would be better to communicate the main and important items in the first email and save the rest for later.

                      Running a spell check for your email

                      How to Write Better Emails at Work

                      Is writing a bad email going to ruin your career? No. But learning the unspoken rules for writing professional emails can improve how competent you appear in the eyes of your colleagues. In this HBR collaboration with YouTube creator Jeff Su, you’ll learn how to better organize your email communications and avoid typical rookie mistakes.

                      0:00 — Why bother with email etiquette?
                      1:19 — Include a call to action in subject line
                      2:13 — One email thread per topic
                      2:48 — Manage recipients
                      3:27 — Start with the main point
                      4:30 — Summarize in your reply
                      5:10 — Hyperlink whenever possible
                      5:38 — Change default setting to “Reply” (not “Reply all”)
                      6:06 — Change undo send options

                      JEFF SU: OK, real talk. Making email etiquette mistakes in the workplace — it’s not going to capsize your career. But learning the unspoken rules of writing professional emails will affect how competent you are perceived to be in the eyes of your colleagues.

                      And since there are no standardized training courses for this, in this video, I’m going to first share the very real benefits of getting good at emailing in the workplace, then dive into my top eight tips for professional email etiquette, many of which I learned the hard way during my first full-time job as a management consultant. So let’s get started.

                      Hi, everyone. My name is Jeff, and I’m truly honored to be able to partner with Harvard Business Review for this video about a nerdy passion of mine: Email etiquette in the workplace. Think back to the last time you received a poorly written email. You might have had to reread it a few times to get the main point, and the action items might have been scattered all over the place.

                      Worst-case scenario, it led to an unnecessarily long back and forth email thread that could have been avoided had the initial email been properly planned out. Therein lies the beauty of well-crafted emails. Not only does it help you, the sender, come across as more capable by showcasing strong communication skills, but it also saves the reader so much of their time by only surfacing information relevant to them.

                      So without further ado, my first step is to have a call to action, when appropriate, in the email subject line. Most of us are familiar with a generic “action required” in subject lines, right? My recommendation is just to take it a step further and include exactly what you need the recipient to do and the estimated time it takes for them to do it.

                      For example, instead of writing “Action required, feedback for project X,” write “Five minutes — survey feedback for project X,” instead. This very small trick gives you a lot more context. It’s a survey for project X. I can get it done very quickly in between the two meetings I have. Or if it’s not appropriate to include the estimated time, be specific about the call to action. For example, instead of “spending estimates for Q4,” write “Elon to approve spending estimates for Q4.” So Elon knows what’s expected of him even before he opens the email.

                      Step number two: Stick with one email thread for the same topic. I’m going to be honest, I got called out for this by a colleague of mine, but I’m glad she told me. Basically, I used to send out separate emails for the same project whenever I had a new idea or follow-up question. But if you think about it from the recipient’s point of view, they’re missing the context from the original email thread and multiple new emails on the same topic just clog up their inboxes unnecessarily. So the general rule of thumb here is to stick to the original email chain for any given topic so everyone can refer to the same information.

                      Email etiquette tip number three: Explain why you added in or took out recipients in email threads. There are many situations you have to add someone in to the email thread to get their input, or take someone out to spare their inbox. A professional and easy way to do this is to add a sentence at the very top of the email clearly showing who you added in or took out. I like to add parentheses and italicize the font to separate it from the actual email body. This way, the readers know who the new recipients are immediately.

                      Tip number four actually addresses a very big pet peeve of mine, which is when senders include a lot information up front, but what they’re really trying to get at or ask for is at the very end of the email. To avoid that, always include your main point first, followed by the context. Just compare these two emails:

                      “Hi Jane, my name is Jeff and I’m in the product marketing team. We’re preparing a forecast deck for the big boss and he’s looking for the revenue projection numbers for the secret electric car that’s launching soon. Can I trouble you to pull that data for me?”

                      Top 15 Email Writing Tips For All Businesses

                      First, you need to understand the set of target audiences and the objective of the email campaigns for preparing clear, concise and actionable email content. You need to craft a compelling subject line in six to eight words.

                      The pitch of the formal email should be professional and courteous. Kick-start the email on a positive note to create a good impression. Ensure to make the message of the email grammatically correct. Hire someone to proofread your piece of content.

                      In the last couple of years, if you are writing only casual emails, then brush up your skills for creating a proper email. It would help to improve the conversion rates and increase the click-through and open rates. Many professionals struggle to scribble formal emails.

                      Formal emails consist of a basic structure with an attractive short and concise subject line, exciting opening and compelling closing copy. You have to format the email by using a professional email address, font, context, and proper salutation. Avoid mistakes like long and unclear content with grammatical errors. Ensure the email doesn’t contain insensitive information.

                      Anatomy of a good email writing tips

                      Does that make sense? The subject line gives a prediction of whether subscribers would engage with the email or not. All your efforts go in vain when subscribers ignore your email with a dull subject line. Formal emails have different categories of writing patterns.

                      Email Tips

                      1. Craft attractive, and clear subject line:
                      Email subject line creates the first impression on subscribers. If you want users to open your email newsletter, then craft beautiful subject lines to improve the open rates.

                      However, 47% of marketers test different subject lines to optimise email performances. So, it’s essential to create compelling subject lines to force the recipients to click through the newsletter. If inboxes get clogged by thousands of emails, it’s necessary to prepare attractive subject lines to help your newsletter stand out.

                      You can use the one-word subject line to involve an ultra minimalistic approach in the campaign. Using numbers and lists are more comfortable for recipients to process the brain for a quick and easy read.

                      email writing tips

                      You should send emails through the company’s email address for internal and external communication. Your email address should get linked up with your real name, not with your nickname. Don’t miss to use hyphens, underscores or periods to secure the email address. Avoid using extra numbers or letters in the email address.

                      tips on email writing

                      First, make a goal to fulfil an expected outcome from the email campaigns. If you don’t know why you are writing the email, then it is difficult to achieve the defined result. Setting up clear email marketing goals give a proper direction to the campaign and make it easier for the general audiences. Keep the goal simple to avoid any confusion.

                      Hitting the right tone for your email campaigns ensure to reach out to the subscribers in a meaningful way. Write three emails in three different tones to experiment for understanding the right one. You can stay consistent in the tone to build the credibility of your brands. If you want to stand out in the crowded inbox of your subscribers, then you have to create a highly recognisable tone to attract the right set of audiences through emotions.

                      Email ideas

                      The first few lines of your email copy should be interesting to compel them to read the full text. If the subscriber opens your email and finds the first few lines boring, they would stop reading and close the email. Customers would understand from the first few lines that you have something to sell. So, solid opening lines encourage them to take a few more minutes of their day to read the whole copy.

                      proper email

                      After creating the strong subject lines, you have to craft the strong email salutation. If you mention the main points concisely, readers can scan without struggling much. You can make a list of the features so that readers can have a glance; don’t miss to explain those features in detail to give more information to the recipients.

                      Ensure to add benefits in your email copy, many subscribers may not be aware why your brand is essential for them. Readers are more interested in scanning mail where they can see the benefits. Many recipients would find your email relevant due to the benefit of your brand.

                      We are living in a customer-centric market and subscribers like personalised content, and it improves the click-through rates and conversion rates. Relevant content is the main cornerstone of personalised content by using the subscriber’s first name in the email.

                      Email Examples

                      Subheads help the readers to absorb the message quickly and grasp the main points effortlessly. Subtitles are essential like headlines and offer a scannable reading for the subscribers. Readers are in a hurry so that they can understand the email with the help of subheads.

                      It’s important to include professional images or Gifs along with engaging content to capture the readers’ attention. You can take pictures or Gifs from Shutterstock, Canva, Envato, iStock and many more. Keep in mind that simple animated works better than complicated ones.

                      Sources:

                      https://hbr.org/2021/08/how-to-write-better-emails-at-work
                      https://easysendy.com/blog/top-15-email-writing-tips-for-all-business/
                      https://www.zoho.com/mail/how-to/write-an-email.html